Aperture vs. Shutter Speed

Aperture
Shutter Speed

In photography, aperture (also called f-number) refers to the diameter of the aperture stop (the stop that determines the brightness in a photo at an image point). Shutter speed on the other hand, is the total amount of time the shutter of the camera is open.

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Aperture

Shutter Speed

Standard units Standard measurements for aperture are f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16 and so on. The agreed standards for shutter speed are 1/1000 s, 1/500 s, 1/250 s, 1/125 s, 1/60 s, 1/30 s, 1/15 s, 1/8 s, 1/4 s, 1/2 s, 1 s.
Use Aperture controls the distance range for how far away objects can be from the camera for them to appear sharp and in focus in the picture. Shutter speed is used to provide a sense of movement and is important in capturing images for objects that are not still.
Definition In photography, aperture refers to the diameter of the aperture slot. When expressed as an f-number, it refers to the focal length of the lens divided by the aperture diameter. Shutter speed refers to the length of time that a camera's shutter is open, i.e. exposure time.

Contents: Aperture vs Shutter Speed

A shot of a jet of water from a hose; fast shutter speed to capture a crisp image of moving water drops.
A shot of a jet of water from a hose; fast shutter speed to capture a crisp image of moving water drops.

edit Function of Aperture vs Shutter speed

The aperture and shutter speed together control the amount of light reaching the image sensor (or film) of a camera. The degree of the sensor's exposure to light determines the brightness of the picture.

If the aperture (diameter of the aperture stop) is small, the depth of field (i.e. the distance range over which objects appear acceptably sharp in the picture) is larger. So all objects at varying distances from the view finder will be in equal focus. So the subject matter may be at a greater distance from the plane of focus and still appear in focus in the photograph.

The shutter speed controls the length of time that a camera's shutter remains open. So in effect, it helps the aperture restrict the amount of light that is allowed to reach the object. The impact of shutter speed is most prominent when photographing moving objects. Images taken with a lower shutter speed are blurred and invoke a visual sense of movement. A higher shutter speed allows clear images that are great for capturing specific moments in time e.g. a crisp picture of a football player in mid air.

edit Units for specifying shutter speed and aperture

Diagram of decreasing apertures, i.e. increasing f-numbers, in one-stop increments. Each aperture has half the light gathering area of the previous one. The actual size of the aperture depends upon the focal length of the lens.
Diagram of decreasing apertures, i.e. increasing f-numbers, in one-stop increments. Each aperture has half the light gathering area of the previous one. The actual size of the aperture depends upon the focal length of the lens.

Aperture is also called f-number (sometimes called focal ratio, f-ratio, f-stop, or relative aperture[1]). It is a representation of the diameter of the aperture stop in terms of the focal length of the lens. In other words, the f-number is the focal length divided by the "effective" aperture diameter. It is a dimensionless number. Standard ways of representing aperture are in sequence (f/2.8, f/4, f/5.6, f/8, f/11, f/16, etc.).

The agreed standards for shutter speed are 1/1000 s, 1/500 s, 1/250 s, 1/125 s, 1/60 s, 1/30 s, 1/15 s, 1/8 s, 1/4 s, 1/2 s, 1 s.

edit Correlation Between Shutter Speed and Aperture

Aperture and shutter speed together determine exposure. Exposure is measured in exposure value (EV), also called stops. Multiple combinations of shutter speed and aperture can give the same exposure: an exposure with a shutter speed of 1/250 s and f/8 is the same as with 1/500 s and f/5.6; or 1/125 s and f/11. Halving the shutter speed doubles the exposure (1 EV more), while doubling the aperture increases the exposure by a factor of 4 (2 EV).

edit Videos

This video explains the definitions of Aperture, ISO and Shutter Speed:

The following video provides recommendations on what shutter speeds and apertures to use:


And this video offers more recommendations on ISO settings, aperture and shutter speed:

edit Etymology

The word aperture is derived from the Latin word apertura which means an opening. Shutter was used in reference with photography in 1862 and meant a device for the opening and closing of the aperture of the lens.

edit References

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Comments: Aperture vs Shutter Speed

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Anonymous comments (1)

July 10, 2013, 4:47pm

Summery:-
1) Smaller Aperture = Higher f number = Higher Depth Of Filed (DOF).
i.e. f/22 gives higher DOF than f/2.4
2) Higher Shutter speed = More frozen objects (less blurry) but will lead to more darker images.
i.e. 1/2000s produce less blurry objects than 1/250s
Hope it helped :) ......Thanks

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