Hinduism is about understanding Brahma, existence, from within the Atman, which roughly means "self" or "soul," whereas Buddhism is about finding the Anatman — "not soul" or "not self." In Hinduism, attaining the highest life is a process of removing the bodily distractions from life, allowing one to eventually understand the Brahma nature within. In Buddhism, one follows a disciplined life to move through and understand that nothing in oneself is "me," such that one dispels the very illusion of existence. In so doing, one realizes Nirvana.

In Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan's words,"Buddhism, in its origin at least, is an offshoot of Hinduism."

Comparison chart

Buddhism versus Hinduism comparison chart
BuddhismHinduism
BuddhismHinduism
Place of worship Buddhist monasteries, temples, shrines. Temple (Mandir)
Place of origin Nepal and the Indian subcontinent Indian Subcontinent
Practices Meditation, the Eightfold Path; right view, right aspiration, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration Meditation, yoga, contemplation, yagna (communal worship), offerings in the temple.
Use of statues and pictures Common. Statues are used as meditation objects, and revered as they reflect the qualities of the Buddha. Common
Goal of religion To attain enlightenment and be released from the cycle of rebirth and death, thus attaining Nirvana. To break the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation, and attain salvation.
Founder The Buddha (born as Prince Siddhartha) Not credited to a particular founder.
Means of salvation Reaching Enlightenment or Nirvana, following the Noble Eightfold Path. Reaching enlightenment by the Path of Knowledge, the Path of devotion, or the Path of Good Deeds.
Belief of God The idea of an omniscient, omnipotent, omnipresent creator is rejected by Buddhists. The Buddha himself refuted the theistic argument that the universe was created by a self-conscious, personal God. Many gods, but realize that they all come from Atman.
Human Nature Ignorance, as all sentient beings. In the Buddhist texts, it is seen that when Gautama, after his awakening, was asked whether he was a normal human being, he replied, "No". Depends on sects.
Religious Law The Dharma. Dharma shastras
Clergy The Buddhist Sangha, composed of bhikkhus (male monks) and bhikkhunis (female nuns). The sangha is supported by lay Buddhists. No official clergy. Gurus, Yogis, Rishis, Brahmins, Pundits, priests, priestesses, monks, and nuns.
Literal Meaning Buddhists are those who follow the teachings of the Buddha. The followers of Vedas are called as Arya, noble person. Arya is not a dynasty, ethnicity or race. Anyone who follows the teachings of Vedas is considered Arya.
Life after death Rebirth is one of the central beliefs of Buddhism. We are in an endless cycle of birth, death and re-birth, which can only be broken by attaining nirvana. Attaining nirvana is the only way to escape suffering permanently. A constant cycle of reincarnation until enlightenment is reached.
Confessing sins Sin is not a Buddhist concept. Repentance for unintentional sins are prescribed, but intentional sins have to be repaid through karmic consequences.
Marriage It is not a religious duty to marry. Monks and nuns do not marry and are celibate. Advice in the Discourses on how to maintain a happy and harmonious marriage. Man may marry one woman. However, kings in mythology often married more than one woman.
Followers Buddhists Hindus.
Authority of Dalai Lama Dalai Lamas are tulkus of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism. They are cultural figures and are independent of the doctrinal basis of Buddhism. N/A.
Population 500-600 million 1 Billion.
View of the Buddha The highest teacher and the founder of Buddhism, the all-transcending sage. Some Hindu sects claim Buddha was an avatar of Vishnu. Others believe he was a holy man.
Scriptures Tripitaka - a vast canon composed of 3 sections: the Discourses, the Discipline and the Commentaries, and some early scriptures, such as the Gandhara texts. Vedas, Upanishad, Puranas, Gita. Smrti and Sruti are oral scriptures.
Original Language(s) Pali Sanskrit
View of other Dharmic religions Since the word Dharma means doctrine, law, way, teaching, or discipline, other Dharmas are rejected. They believe that Buddhists, Jains, & Sikhs should reunite with Hinduism(which is the original Dharmic religion).
Goal of Philosophy To eliminate mental suffering. Salvation, freedom from the cycle of birth and reincarnation.
Religion which atheists may still be adherents of Yes. Charvakas and Sankyas are atheistic groups in Hinduism.
Geographical distribution and predominance (Majority or strong influence) Mainly in Thailand, Cambodia, Sri lanka, Nepal, Bhutan, Tibet, Japan, Myanmar (Burma), Laos, Vietnam, China, Mongolia, Korea, Singapore, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Other small minorities exist in other countries. Mainly in India and Nepal.
Status of Vedas The Buddha rejected the 5 Vedas, according to the dialogues seen in the nikayas. Vedas are generally regarded as sacred in Hinduism. Post-Vedic texts like the Gita are also revered.
Place and Time of origin The origin of Buddhism points to one man, Siddhartha Gautama, the historical Buddha, who was born in Lumbini (in present-day Nepal) during the 5th century BCE. Indian Subcontinent, beginning with the Vedic civilization circa 3000 BC
Holy days/Official Holidays Vesak day in which the birth, the awakening, and the parinirvana of the Buddha is celebrated. Diwali, Holi, Janmashtami, Ganesh Chaturthi, etc.
Symbols The conch, endless knot, fish, lotus, parasol, vase, dharmachakra (Wheel of Dharma), and victory banner. Om, Swastika, etc.
Time of origin 2,500 years ago, circa 563 B.C.E. (Before Common Era) circa 3000 B.C.E
Status of women No distinctions between men and women. Women are equal to men, and men are equal to women in the Sangha. The Buddha gave Men and Women equal rights and a major part in the Sangha. Women can become priestesses or nuns.
Principle This life is suffering, and the only way to escape from this suffering is to dispel one's cravings and ignorance by realizing the Four Noble Truths and practicing the Eightfold Path. To follow dharma, i.e. eternal laws
Views on Other Religions Being a practical philosophy, Buddhism is neutral against other religions. Some scriptures say the path they describe is the only path to God and salvation. Other scriptures are more philosophical than religious. Beliefs vary. Some believe that all spiritual paths lead to the same God.
Can atheists partake in this religion's practices? Yes. Yes.

Video explaining the differences

Further Reading

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References

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