Farther is used in relation to physical distance; it means "at or to a greater distance" whereas "further" means "to a greater degree". An easy way to remember is to use the mnemonic "In a galaxy far, farther away..", which will remind you to use farther only in the context of distance.

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Definition comparative of "far". At a greater distance. (1) in addition to. (2) synonym for further. (3) promote (as verb).
Part of speech "Farther" may be used as an adjective or adverb. "Further" may be used as an adjective, adverb or verb.

edit Usage of Farther vs. Further

The word "farther" can only be used in the context of distance. For example "How much farther do we have to go before we can stop for food?" Although some usage guides insist that only farther should be used for physical distance, both farther and further have been used interchangeably throughout much of their histories.

However, only "further" is used in other contexts like:

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"Farther vs Further." Diffen.com. Diffen LLC, n.d. Web. 18 Nov 2015. < >