Hinduism and Islam are the third and second most popular religions in the world respectively. They differ in many respects - including idol worship, monotheism and their history.

Islam is a monotheistic Abrahamic religion, founded by Prophet Muhammad in the Middle East in the 7th century CE. Hinduism on the other hand is religious tradition that originated in the Indian subcontinent in the pre-classical era (1500–500 BCE) and does not have a specific founder.

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Life after death A constant cycle of reincarnation until enlightenment is reached. A Muslim and all the beings will be accountable to Allah on the Day of Judgement.
Place of origin Indian Subcontinent Arabian Peninsula, Mecca at Mount Hira.
Place of worship Temple (Mandir) Mosque/masjid, any place which is considered clean by Islamic standards.
Practices Meditation, yoga, contemplation, yagna (communal worship), offerings in the temple. Five pillars: Testament that there is one God and Muhammad is his messenger (shahadah); prayer five times daily; fast during Ramadan; charity to the poor (zakat); pilgrimage (Hajj).
Use of statues and pictures Common Muslims are not permitted to depict the image of God nor any prophets.
Belief of God Many gods, but realize that they all come from Atman. Only one God.
Clergy No official clergy. Gurus, Yogis, Rishis, Brahmins, Pundits, priests, priestesses, monks, and nuns. Imam leads congregational prayer in a mosque. Sheikh, Maulana, Mullah and Mufti
About Devotion to the various gods & goddesses of Hinduism. Islam consists of individuals who believe in Allah, a deity whose teachings its followers—Muslims—believe were recorded, verbatim, by the god's last prophet, Muhammad.
Means of salvation Reaching enlightenment by the Path of Knowledge, the Path of devotion, or the Path of Good Deeds. Belief in one God, remembrance of God, repentance, fear of God and hope in God's mercy.
Concept of God God is in everything and everything is God. Ninety nine names and attributes of Allah (God) who is infinite supreme, Sublimely one, all are dependent on him yet he depends on none. Self sufficient. without beginning and without end, and there is nothing comparable to him.
Belief Diverse beliefs depending on sects. Belief in one God,who has sent messengers with revelation and guidance for humanity so they may be guided to Islam (submission to God) & who have came with both good news and a warning, the last & final messenger being Muhammad صلى الله علي
Definition The word Hindu has geographical significance and was used originally for those people who lived beyond the river Sindhu or the region watered by the river Indus. Hindus themselves, call their religion "Sanatana Dharma, " meaning "Eternal Law." Islam is an Arabic word for "Submission or surrender in Ultimate Peace".Muslim means a believer in One God (Al-Illah or Allah)
Religious Law Dharma shastras Sharia law, or law that is loosely or strictly based on the Qur'an and the Hadiths, exists in many countries that have a majority Muslim population. Only some regions with sharia law apply it to judicial or criminal issues.
View of Oriental religions Buddhism and Jainism were considered atheistic religions by traditional Hindu schools. Buddhists do not consider Buddha an avatar of Vishnu and believe that Hindu priests made that claim to stem the spread of Buddhism, which threatened Hinduism. Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism, Shino are not from following the right path. But, “… And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).” [al-Israa’ 17:15].
Angels The concept of angels does not apply in Hinduism. Some mythological stories include rishis, who sometimes serve as the messengers of God. Angels are created from light and remain unseen as they worship and follow God's commands.
Goal of religion To break the cycle of birth, death and reincarnation, and attain salvation. Follow the guidance of the Qur'an and Hadiths to reach eternal paradise.
Day of worship Orthodox schools prescribe three prayer times a day: at dawn, noon and dusk. Prayer five times daily is obligatory. Friday is the day of congregational prayer, obligatory for men, but not for women.
Literal Meaning The followers of Vedas are called as Arya, noble person. Arya is not a dynasty, ethnicity or race. Anyone who follows the teachings of Vedas is considered Arya. Islam is derived from the Arabic root "Salema": peace, purity, submission and obedience. In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law.
Founder Not credited to a particular founder. Prophet Muhammad
Second coming of Jesus N/A. Affirmed
Principle To follow dharma, i.e. eternal laws Say, "He is Allah , [who is] One, Allah , the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent." - Quran: Surah Al Ikhlas
View of the Buddha Some Hindu sects claim Buddha was an avatar of Vishnu. Others believe he was a holy man. He may be one of the 124,000 Prophets.
Prophets No prophets, but Rishis could be considered equivalent in Vedic times. Avataras of Vedic God are different from human reincarnations, but could be considered equivalent to Christian idea of God in flesh. Many from Adam, Abraham, Noah, Jesus etc to Muhammed. There 124,000 prophets but only 25 Prophets known.
Position of Abraham N/A. A great Prophet.
Original Language(s) Sanskrit Arabic
Status of Muhammad N/A. Deeply loved and revered in Islam, last Prophet, but is not worshipped, only God is worshipped, according to Islam creation is never to be worshipped under any circumstances only the creator
Position of Mary N/A. Mary receives significant admiration from Muslims. She is said by the Prophet Muhammad to be the best woman God created. She is free of sin as the mother of Jesus.
View of Dharmic religions Believe that Buddhism, Jainism, & Sikhism should reunite with Hinduism. Extremely false and corrupted
Status of women Women can become priestesses or nuns. The prophet said "Do good to and serve your mother, then your mother, then your mother, then your father, then the near relatives and then those who come after them." Islam's honoring women is the great status of the mother in Islam.
Marriage Man may marry one woman. However, kings in mythology often married more than one woman. Islam is totally opposed to monasticism and celibacy. Marriage is an act of Sunnah in Islam and is strongly recommended. Men can onlymarry the people of the book. Women can only marry Muslims man.
imams identified as N/A. Shiites believe they are the successors of Ali; Sunnis regard them as their clergy.
Abrahamic Lineage N/A. The ancestor of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم is Abraham (Ibrahim) through his son Ismael.
Followers Hindus. Muslims
Status of Adam N/A. Free from all major sins and faults. Adam is the first prophet and man on earth as sent by Allah and he is the father of Humanity, and Muhammad is the last prophet in Islam.
Confessing sins Repentance for unintentional sins are prescribed, but intentional sins have to be repaid through karmic consequences. The Qur'an asks them to become repentant, seek Allah’s forgiveness, and make a sincere tawba, and assures them that if they do this, Allah will forgive them, and exonerate them from their misdeeds.
Human Nature Depends on sects. Human beings are not believed to be inherently sinful, but are seen as equally capable of both good and evil. Islam also teaches that faith and action go hand-in-hand.
Scriptures Vedas, Upanishad, Puranas, Gita. Smrti and Sruti are oral scriptures. The Qur'an, the Hadiths (Sahih al-Bukhari, Sahih Muslims, Sunan Abu Dawood, Sunan at-Tirmidhi, Sunan al-Sughra and Sunan ibn Majah.
Jesus N/A. a Prophet and messenger of God, and his proper name used in the Quran is Isa ibn Maryam [Jesus the son of Mary (not God)]
God's role in salvation Beliefs vary by sect. Upanishads (scripture) say God chooses who gets salvation. Salvation is attained via good deeds and righteousness (following the "dharma" and avoiding sin) Islam teaches us that salvation is attainable through the worship of God alone. A person must believe in God and follow His commandments.
Geographical distribution and predominance Mainly in India. There are 1.6 billion. By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 24.8% in Asia-Oceania, 91.2% in the Middle East-North Africa, 29.6% in Sub-Saharan Africa, around 6.0% in Europe, and 0.6% in the Americas.
Views on other religion Believe all religions have some truth in them. Christians, Jews, Sabians and Magians are regarded as the people of the book but are not in the right path.

Further Reading

For further reading, there are several books available on Amazon.com on Hinduism and Islam:


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