The island of Ireland is divided into two separate jurisdictions: the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The Republic of Ireland, which makes up the southern portion of the country, is independent from the United Kingdom, while Northern Ireland is part of the UK.

Northern Ireland is the older of the two, having been formed in 1921 from the six counties in the northern Province of Ulster which wished to retain its political unity with Great Britain. It is therefore a constituent country within the United Kingdom alongside England, Scotland, and Wales. Whilst the UK capital is London, the regional capital is Belfast. The Head of State is the British Monarch, although executive authority is vested in the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. There is also a devolved administration headed by the joint office of the First and Deputy First Ministers. There are approximately 2 million people living in Northern Ireland.

The Republic of Ireland was created in 1948 when the Irish Free State (also known as Southern Ireland) became fully independent and severed all political ties with the United Kingdom. The capital city of the Republic of Ireland is Dublin. The Head of State is the President of Ireland, and executive authority is vested in the Prime Minister (Taoiseach) of Ireland. There are approximately 4.5 million people living in the Republic.

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Ireland versus Northern Ireland comparison chart
Edit this comparison chartIrelandNorthern Ireland
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Introduction (from Wikipedia) Ireland (Irish: Éire; Ulster Scots: Airlann) is the third largest island in Europe and the twentieth largest island in the world. It lies to the northwest of Continental Europe and is surrounded by hundreds of islands and islets. Northern Ireland (Ulster Scots: Norlin Airlann or Norlin Airlan) is a part of the United Kingdom in the northeast of the island of Ireland. It is variously described as a country, province, or region of the UK.
Capital and largest city Dublin Belfast
Languages English, Gaelic English, Irish, Ulster Scots
Currency Euro Pound sterling (GBP)
Constituent part Northern Ireland Ireland

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