Purines and Pyrimidines are nitrogenous bases that make up the two different kinds of nucleotide bases in DNA and RNA. The two-carbon nitrogen ring bases (adenine and guanine) are purines, while the one-carbon nitrogen ring bases (thymine and cytosine) are pyrimidines.
|Introduction (from Wikipedia)||A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, consisting of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.||Pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound similar to benzene and pyridine, containing two nitrogen atoms at positions 1 and 3 of the six-member ring. It is isomeric with two other forms of diazine.|
|Function||Production of RNA and DNA, proteins and starches, the regulation of enzymes and cell signaling.||Production of RNA and DNA, proteins and starches, the regulation of enzymes and cell signaling.|
|Nucleobases||Adenine and guanine||Cytosine, thymine, uracil|
|Structure||A pyrimidine ring fused to a imidazole ring. Contains two carbon-nitrogen rings and four nitrogen atoms.||Contains one carbon-nitrogen ring and two nitrogen atoms.|
|Melting point||214 °C, 487 K, 417 °F||20–22 °C|
|Type of Compound||Heterocyclic aromatic organic compound||Heterocyclic aromatic organic compound|
|Molar mass||120.11 g mol−1||80.088 g mol-1|
|CAS number||120-73-0||289-95-2 Y|
|Synthesis in Lab||Traube Purine Synthesis||Biginelli Reaction|
A purine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound containing 4 nitrogen atoms. It contains two carbon rings, and is made of a pyrimidine ring fused to an imidazole ring.
A pyrimidine is a heterocyclic aromatic organic compound containing 2 nitrogen atoms. It contains only one carbon ring.
Both purines and pyrimidines have the same function: they serve as a form of energy for cells, and are essential for production of DNA and RNA, proteins, starch, regulations of enzymes, cell signaling.
Purines make up two of the four nucleobases in DNA and RNA: adenine and guanine. Pyramidines make up the other bases in DNA and RNA: cytosine, thymine (in DNA) and uracil (in RNA). Useful mnemonics to remember these bases are:
- "CUT the Py": CUT: Cytosine, Uracil, Thymine; Py (Pyrimindines)
- "Pure As Gold (Pur AG)": Purines are Adenine, Guanine
Purines can be created artificially through Traube purine synthesis.
Pyrimidines can be prepared in a lab using organic synthesis, such as through the Bigineli reaction.