On the surface, Buddhism and Islam have more differences than similarities in their philosophies. While Islam is a monotheistic religion that believes in worshiping an almighty God, Buddhism rejects the notion of a creator God but does honor enlightened beings as deities.

Buddhism preaches vegetarianism and shunning alcohol and drugs. Islam also bans alcohol but does not preach vegetarianism.

A Buddhist who takes a spiritual refuge outside the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha is not considered a Buddhist. S/he may study and learn from other religions, but to consider another teaching and to honour someone outside the Buddha, Dhamma and Sangha (collectively called the Sasana) as equal to or higher than the Sasana makes him/her a non Buddhist.

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Buddhism

Buddhism

Islam

Islam
Practices Practices of the Threefold Training: Morality, Concentration, and Wisdom. Five pillars: Testament that there is one God and Muhammad is his messenger (shahadah); prayer five times daily; fast during Ramadan; charity to the poor (zakat); pilgrimage (Hajj).
Place of worship Monasteries, nunneries, pagodas and temples. Mosque/masjid, any place which is considered clean by Islamic standards.
Place of origin Nepal, India Arabian Peninsula.
Belief of God Buddhism does not believe in a Creator God. Only one God.
Use of statues and pictures Common Muslims are not permitted to depict the image of God nor any prophet.
Means of salvation Buddhism has nothing to do with "salvation". The only goal in Buddhism is to attain Nirvana. To do this, we should let go of our desires, cravings and attachments, and try to dispel our ignorance Belief in one God, remembrance of God, repentance, fear of God and hope in God's mercy.
About Following the teachings of the Buddha Islam consists of individuals who believe in Allah, a deity whose teachings its followers—Muslims—believe were recorded, verbatim, by the god's last prophet, Muhammad.
Belief The Buddha was the teacher to show us the four noble truths and the eightfold path (the path to nirvana or the way to enlightenment). Belief in one God,who has sent messengers with revelation and guidance for humanity so they may be guided to Islam (submission to God) & who have came with both good news and a warning, the last & final messenger being Muhammad صلى الله علي
Religious Law The Buddha's teachings, the Dharma. Sharia law, or law that is loosely or strictly based on the Qur'an, exists in many countries that have a majority Muslim population. Only some regions with sharia law apply it to judicial or criminal issues.
Life after death Until one has attained Nirvana, he or she will be reborn into any of the 31 planes of existence over and over again, due to his/her karma. A Muslim and all the beings will be accountable to Allah on the Day of Judgement.
Clergy Monks and Nuns, who unitedly and exactly follow the teachings of the Buddha under the name 'Sangha'. Imam leads congregational prayer in a mosque. Sheikh, Maulana, Mullah and Mufti
Concept of Deity Instead of deities, Devas or celestial beings are accepted as those suffering in the samsara. God (Allah) is the only god and is all-powerful and omniscient.
Prophets No prophets accepted in Theravada Buddhism. Many from Adam, Abraham, Noah, Jesus etc to Muhammed
Day of worship Instead of worshipping, Buddhists pay obeisance to the Buddha, the Dharma and the Sangha. Prayer five times daily is obligatory. Friday is the day of congregational prayer, obligatory for men, but not for women.
View of other Oriental religions Buddhists usually follow Oriental religions, as well as their own. N/A
Principle This life is suffering, and the only way to escape from this suffering is to dispel one's cravings and ignorance by practising the Eightfold Path. Say, "He is Allah , [who is] One, Allah , the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent." - Quran: Surah Al Ikhlas
Definition Teachings of the Buddha Islam is an Arabic word for "Submission or surrender in Ultimate Peace".Muslim means a believer in One God (Al-Illah or Allah)
Symbols Wheel. None that are universal, though Muhammad's name in calligraphy is common. The popular star and crescent symbol is also common, but mainly relates to historical and political issues, not necessarily religious ones.
Concept of God A God or gods have always been rejected wholly by Theravada Buddhists. Their only refuges are the three jewels: The Buddha, The Dhamma, and The Sangha. Ninety nine names and attributes of Allah (God) who is infinite supreme, Sublimely one, all are dependent on him yet he depends on none. Self sufficient. without beginning and without end, and there is nothing comparable to him.
Angels No angels accepted. Angels are created from light and remain unseen as they worship and follow God's commands.
View of Oriental religions Knows that any other religions cannot lead to the nirvana, but never condemns them. All Religions were given the book and are people of the book but are FALSE religions
Teachings about Behavior Never do what is evil; do what is good; keep your mind pure. (teachings of the Buddhas about behavior) Scholars of morality have divided moral issues into two categories: 1 - Morals in the common meaning 2 - Morals in the particular meaning that includes good manners and Islamic behaviour

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