Judaism is the oldest of all the Abrahamic religions. Its founding prophet is Moses, who had been chosen by God to lead the Israelite slaves out of Egypt. Camped under Mount Sinai, Moses gave the Israelite slaves the Torah of their God, and after wandering in the desert for 40 years, they went to live in what is now known as Israel, which they believe is God's gift to them.

Jews trace their Abrahamic lineage through his son, Isaac.

Islam was founded by Muhammad in the year 622. Muhammad believed that God chose him to be his prophet and to reveal to his Arab countrymen that there is only one God. Muhammad wrote down the revelations he believed he received from God and called it the 'Qur'an.'

Muslims trace their Abrahamic lineage through his son Ismael.

Comparison chart

Islam versus Judaism comparison chart
IslamJudaism
IslamJudaism
Place of worship Mosque/masjid, any place which is considered clean by Islamic standards. Synagogues, Western Wall of the Temple in Jerusalem
Place of origin Arabian Peninsula, Mecca at Mount Hira. The Levant
Practices Five pillars: Testament that there is one God and Muhammad is his messenger (shahadah); prayer five times daily; fast during Ramadan; charity to the poor (zakat); pilgrimage (Hajj). Prayers 3 times daily, with a fourth prayer added on Shabbat and holidays. Shacarit prayer in the morning, Mincha in the afternoon, Arvit at night; Musaf is an extra Shabbat service.
Belief of God Only one God (monotheism). God is the one True Creator. God has always existed, none existed before him and will exist forever. He transcends life and death. No part of His creation resembles Him, He cannot be seen, but sees all. Only one God (monotheism). God is the one True Creator. God has always existed, none existed before him and will exist forever. He transcends life and death.
About Islam consists of individuals who believe in Allah, a deity whose teachings its followers—Muslims—believe were recorded, verbatim, by the god's last prophet, Muhammad. Judaism is created by Abraham 2000 BCE and his descendants of Issac and Jacob. The Law: the 10 Commandments was given to Moses (and 600 000 Jews who left Egyptian slavery) in c, 1300 BCE to return to Israel and follow God's will.
Use of statues and pictures Images of God or prophets not permitted. Art takes the form of calligraphy, architecture etc. Muslims distinguish themselves from other groups by not drawing lifelike human works, which could be mistaken as idolatry. No image is representative of God Ancient times: Not allowed as it is considered Idolatry. Today, great artwork is encouraged. Statues of people are fine, but not as religious icons.
Goal of religion Fulfill gift and responsibility of this life through following the guidance of Holy Quran and Hadith, striving to serve mankind through compassion, justice, trustworthiness, and love for all of God's creation To celebrate LIFE! To fulfill the Covenant with God. Do good deeds. Help repair the world. Love God with all your heart. Strong social justice ethic.
Scriptures The Qur'an, and traditions of the Holy Last messenger Muhammad, called 'Sunnah' which is found in narrations or 'hadiths' by the men around him. Tanakh (Jewish Bible) , Torah.
Means of salvation Belief in one God, remembrance of God, repentance, fear of God and hope in God's mercy. Through belief in God, good deeds, complete faith.
Founder Prophet Muhammad. According to Islamic scripture, all people who follow God's revealed guidance and the messengers sent with it 'submit' to that guidance, and are considered Muslims (ie. Adam, Moses, Abraham, Jesus, etc.). Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, and Moses
Life after death All beings created with reason will be accountable to God Almighty on the Day of Judgement. They will be rewarded for every atom's weight of good, and either forgiven or punished for evil deeds. World to come, Reincarnation (some groups); unifying with God, there are different opinions and beliefs
Literal Meaning Islam is derived from the Arabic root "Salema": peace, purity, submission and obedience. In the religious sense, Islam means submission to the will of God and obedience to His law. A Muslim is one who follows Islam. A Jew (Hebrew: יְהוּדִי, Yehudi (sl.); יְהוּדִים, Yehudim (pl.); Ladino: ג׳ודיו, Djudio (sl.); ג׳ודיוס, Djudios (pl.); Yiddish: ייִד, Yid (sl.); ייִדן, Yidn (pl.))[1] is a member of the Jewish people/ethnicity.
Belief Belief in one God, who has sent messengers with revelation and guidance for humanity so they may be guided to good & who have came with both good news and a warning, the last & final messenger being Muhammad صلى الله علي Jewish central belief is that they have chosen to follow the commandments of the One True God and God will look out for them in return. Every man is equal. Jews believe a Messiah coming and proof will be an end to war and hunger all over the world.
Human Nature Humans are born pure and innocent. Upon reaching adolescence, you are responsible for what you do, and must choose right from wrong. Islam also teaches that faith and action go hand-in-hand. You must choose good from bad. You are responsible for your actions, not thoughts.
Followers Muslims Jews
Prophets God sent thousands of divinely inspired messengers to guide mankind. These include Adam, Solomon, David, Noah, Abraham, Ismail, Issac, Moses, Jesus, and Muhammad. There are 124,000 prophets, who were sent to all the world's nations. Moses, and the subsequent Prophets of Israel as told in the Jewish Bible (Tanakh).
Geographical distribution and predominance There are 1.6 billion. By the percentage of the total population in a region considering themselves Muslim, 24.8% in Asia-Oceania, 91.2% in the Middle East-North Africa, 29.6% in Sub-Saharan Africa, around 6.0% in Europe, and 0.6% in the Americas. Existing in Israel for 1500 years, but the Romans in 70 AD kicked all Jews out. Jews are dispersed all over the world, at one time present in almost every country. Now the majority live in Israel, USA, Canada, Russia, France, England.
God's role in salvation You are judged according to your efforts to do good and avoid sinful behaviors, oppression, etc. God will judge your deeds and intentions. A person must believe in God and follow His commandments. Divine revelation of God's law and to judge man's actions. Good deeds, and righteousness. Each New Year, during Yom Kippur, Jews fast and pray for forgiveness from God, and if accepted, are written into the Book of Life, for the next year.
Original Language(s) Arabic Hebrew. Every word has a 3 letter root word. Yiddish: part Hebrew, part German/East European language. Sephardic: part Hebrew, part Arabic language.
Ressurection of Jesus Denied because God raised Jesus to him and he will return before end of time to finish his life, correct any confusion about his teachings and restore order to the world. Denied
Abrahamic Lineage The ancestor of Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم is Abraham (Ibrahim) through his son Ismael. Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob are thanked every prayer day. Jacob's 12 sons became the 12 tribes of israel. Of these, 10 were lost during Assyrian Exile.
Symbols Muhammad's name in calligraphy is common. There is also the black standard that says "There is no god but God and Muhammad is the last messenger of God" in Arabic. The star and crescent is not Islam per se; it is inspired by the Ottoman empire. Star of David, Menorah.
Religious Law Shariah law (derived from Quran and Hadith) governs prayers, business transactions, and individual rights, as well as criminal and governmental laws. Religious debate, or 'Shura' is utilized for practical solutions to contemporary issues Halakhah. Ethics. Commandments. 613 mitzvahs to be followed. Charity. Prayer. Rabbinical rulings with minority opinions. Debate very important part of system. Debate is encouraged in schools. Part of Bible addresses specific laws for everyday life.
Clergy Imam leads congregational prayer in a mosque. Sheikh, Maulana, Mullah and Mufti Ancient times: Hereditary privileged priest class--Kohen and Levi. Present day: Religious functionaries like Rabbis, Cantors, Scribes, Mohels.
Day of worship Prayer five times daily is obligatory. Friday is the day of congregational prayer, obligatory for men, but not for women. Friday at sunset through Saturday sunset, is the Sabbath, THE most Holy Day (yes, all 52 of them). Taking time off from work, once a week, was invented by Judaism. It is more Holy than any other holiday, and is spent in contemplation and prayer.
View of the Buddha N/A. Islamic scripture does not discuss or mention Gautam Buddha. N/A.
Confessing sins Forgiveness must be sought from God, there is no intermediary with him. If any wrong is done against another person or thing, forgiveness must first be sought from them, then from God, as all of God's creation have rights that must not be infringed Ancient times: there was a sin offering for individuals. Today people individually repair their sins. On Yom Kippur, they confess sins, and ask forgiveness from God. But also they must ask forgiveness directly from any people they may have wronged.
Marriage Islam is totally opposed to monasticism and celibacy. Marriage is an act of Sunnah in Islam and is strongly recommended. Men can only marry the "people of the book" i.e., Abrahamic religions. Women can only marry a Muslim man. Ancient times: unlimited polygamy with concubinage. In modern times, monogamy officially since 1310 AD.
Concept of Deity God (Allah) is the only god and is all-powerful and omniscient. Belief in one God and teachings of the tradition, prophets and rabbis.
Revered People Prophets, Imams (religious leaders). The Patriarchs, Moses, various rabbis, and Tzaddics, down through the centuries.
Spiritual Beings Angels, demons, spirits, jinn (genies). Angels, demons, and spirits.
Concept of God Ninety nine names and attributes of Allah (God) who is infinite supreme, Sublimely one, all are dependent on him yet he depends on none. Self sufficient. without beginning and without end, and there is nothing comparable to him. One God
Definition Islam is an Arabic word for "Submission or surrender in Ultimate Peace".Muslim means a believer in One God (Al-Illah or Allah) Of the tribe of Judah.
Status of Muhammad Deeply loved and revered in Islam. The last Prophet, but is not worshipped. Only God (the creator) is worshipped in Islam; God's creation (including prophets) are not considered worthy of worship. N/A.
Status of women The prophet said "Do good to and serve your mother, then your mother, then your mother, then your father, then the near relatives and then those who come after them." Islam's honoring women is the great status of the mother in Islam. Equal to men in eyes of God and in the Law (Halakha). Woman traditionally have been granted more equal rights than most other world cultures. Today, traditions among the Orthodox and the Reform movements differ greatly.
Second coming of Jesus Affirmed Not part of liturgy.
View of Oriental religions Buddhism, Taoism, Hinduism, Shino are not from following the right path. But, “… And We never punish until We have sent a Messenger (to give warning).” [al-Israa’ 17:15]. Jews accept others can have different religions. Jews must obey the law of the land, if ethical.
Jesus Muslims believe Jesus to be a perfect, sinless, highly revered Prophet and a messenger of God. His name in Arabic is Isa ibn Mariam (Jesus the son of Mary). Jesus was immaculately conceived through God, but is not God or the son of God. A fellow Jew, a respected, learned scholar. Not mentioned in the Jewish texts.
Original Languages Arabic. Hebrew common till 500 BCE, Aramaic and Greek koine till 300 CE. Hebrew always for religious services. Local languages and different extinct and living Jewish languages like Carfati, Jiddish, Ladino, Judesmo etc
Angels Angels are created from light and remain unseen as they worship and follow God's commands. Angels serve God as messengers. World is full of beings existing that we cannot see or understand. Kabbalah includes mystical studies of this.
Holy Days Ramadan (month of fasting), Eid-ul Adha (feast of the sacrifice), Eid-ul Fitr (sweet festival at the end of Ramadan). Rosh HaShanah, Yom Kippur, Sukkot, Simchat Torah, Chanukah, Tu BiShvat, Passover, Lag BaOmer, Shavout. Sabbath most important—one day a week no work, just peace, joy and prayer.
Position of Abraham A great prophet and a perfect, sinless example of the divine guidance of God. Father of Jewish Nation. From city of Ur. His father was an idol maker, but when he broke an idol, his father told him not to worry, the statue was not God Travelled to what is today Israel & purchased land. He found God during his travels in dessert
Principle Say, "He is Allah , [who is] One, Allah , the Eternal Refuge. He neither begets nor is born, Nor is there to Him any equivalent." - Quran: Surah Al Ikhlas By accepting the covenant, they choose to follow God's commandments. A unique ethnicity. Early monotheists.
On Race Races generally viewed as equal, but those that accept Islam are viewed more favorably than those that do not. "Among His Signs is the creation of the heavens and the earth, and the variations in your languages and your colors..." —Surat 30:22 Jews believe they are the "chosen people" i.e. descendants of the ancient Israelites are chosen to be in a covenant with God. However, all human beings are God's people, descended from Adam and Eve who were created in the image of God.
Position of Mary Mary receives significant admiration from Muslims. She is said by the Prophet Muhammad to be one of the four best women that God created. She is free of sin as the mother of Jesus. Not applicable, as Jews do not believe that Jesus is their Messiah, and therefore, his Jewish mother plays no role in the Jewish religion other than history.
On Clothing Women must present themselves modestly to cover hair and body shape. Men must be modestly dressed and covered from waist to knee. In most Muslim culture, women wear a form of the hijab; in some, they must wear the full-body cover known as the burqa. Orthodox men always wear hats; Orthodox women either wear hats or wigs. Orthodox dress is modest.
imams identified as Shiites believe they are the successors of Ali; Sunnis regard them as their clergy. N/A.
On Food/Drink Muslims are only supposed to eat foods that are considered halal. Pork is forbidden. Requirement for prayer and ritual butchery of meat. Quick and swift slaughter at single point on the throat; blood has to be completely drained. Jews are required to eat kosher food. Pork is forbidden. Requirement for prayer and ritual butchery of meat. Quick and swift slaughter at single point on the throat; blood has to be completely drained.
View of Jesus Jesus was a perfect, sinless, highly revered Prophet and a messenger of God. Jesus was immaculately conceived through God, but is not God or the son of God. Jesus did not die but ascended to heaven. So there was no resurrection. Regular Person.
Praying to Saints, Mary, and Angel Shiites ask for Saints' intercession, but, Sunnis do not. Mary is venerated by both Sunnis and Shiites however. Jews only pray to God. They do not need Rabbis to pray. Each Jew can pray directly to God whenever he or she wants to.
View on Abrahamic religions Believe that Jews & Christians should accept Muhammad as the final Prophet; believe that Baha'is are wrong in believing that Bah-u-llah is a prophet. Jews began Abrahamic religions. Christians share early prophets.The Koran also has renditions of these prophets. The New Testament can be viewed as written by Jews for the Jews of that time.
Status of Adam Free from all major sins and faults. Adam is the first prophet and man on earth as sent by Allah and he is the father of Humanity, and Muhammad is the last prophet in Islam. First known use of the Adam/Eve mythology.
Primary God(s) Only Allah, who is seen as being all-powerful. "They do blaspheme who say: Allah is one of three in a Trinity: for there is no god except One Allah." —Surat Al-Ma'idah 5:73 The God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob (Israel).
Founders and Early Leaders Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali Abraham, Moses, David, and many Prophets.
Important Tenets The Five Pillars of Islam among Sunni Muslims and the Seven Pillars of Islam among Shia Muslims. The Shia Twelvers also have the Ancillaries of the Faith. The Law of Moses.
Most Common Sects Sunni, Shia. Askenaz and Sephardim.
Virtue on which religion is based upon Tawheed (oneness of God); Peace Justice.
Views on other religions Christians and Jews are regarded as the people of the book, who hold a great deal of respect over materialists but are disbelievers far from the correct path. All people should obey 7 (Noahide) Commandments, a set of very basic moral laws. Non-Jews should follow their religion, and let Jewish people follow Judaism.
Population 1.6 billion Muslims Around 13-16 Million, debated. Population varies due to conversion (although some types are not recognized by the state of Israel) and "marrying out" (of the faith)
Original Language Arabic Hebrew has always been the central language of prayer. From 500 BCE, Aramaic and Greek koine and 'Aramized' Hebrew till 300 CE. Local languages and different extinct and living Jewish languages like Carfati, Yiddish, Ladino, Judesmo.

Judaism vs. Christianity vs. Islam

In this 30-minute Mysteries of the Church mini-documentary made for the Roman Catholic Diocese of Brooklyn, New York, religious teachers and academics discuss the historical origins, similarities, and differences between Judaism, Christianity, and Islam.

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