An ongoing debate in academic circles over the past 50-odd years relates to the correlation between leadership and management. Does a manager have to be a great leader? Does a leader need to have good management skills? What is the difference between leadership and management?
Managing and leading are two different ways of organising people. Leadership is setting a new direction or vision for a group that they follow, ie: a leader is the spearhead for that new direction. On the other hand, management controls or directs people/resources in a group according to principles or values that have already been established. The manager uses a formal, rational method whilst the leader uses passion and stirs emotions.
People naturally and willingly follow leaders due to their charisma and personality traits, whereas a manager is obeyed due to the formal authority vested in him/her. As a result, people tend to be more loyal towards leaders rather than managers.
edit Role conflicts
Leadership is one of the several facets of management. Often the same people play wear different hats - both leader and manager - at different points in time. Although not essential, it certainly helps a manager if he/she is also a good leader. Conversely, leaders do well if they have some degree of management skills because it helps them envision the implementation of their strategic vision. Self-motivated groups may not need a leader and may find leaders dominating. Alternatively, small teams may find a natural leader emerge based on his/her specialized skills. But this leader may be subordinate to the team manager in the organizational hierarchy, which may lead to conflicts.
- Leadership is doing the right things; management is doing things right. - Peter Drucker
edit Further Reading
There are some good books available on Amazon.com on leadership and management: