Java and Python are high-level programming languages that are very different. Python appeared earlier than Java, as it appeared in 1991 while Java appeared in 1995. Java and Python handle variables differently. Java codes are longer than Python codes.

Comparison chart

Java versus Python comparison chart
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Introduction (from Wikipedia) Java is a computer programming language that is concurrent, class-based, object-oriented, and specifically designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. Python is a general-purpose high-level programming language. Its design philosophy emphasizes code readability. Python claims to "[combine] remarkable power with very clear syntax",and its standard library is large and comprehensive.
Designed by James Gosling and Sun Microsystems Guido van Rossum
Appeared in 1995 1990
Influenced by Ada 83, C++, C#, Eiffel, Generic Java, Mesa, Modula-3, Oberon, Objective-C, UCSD Pascal, Smalltalk Perl
Garbage Collection Yes Cycle-detecting and reference-counting garbage collector
Statement terminators Semicolon terminated Newline terminated
Block comments delimiter /* and */ No block comment, but triple-quoted strings act as docstrings
Inline comments delimiter // #
Major Implementations OpenJDK, many others CPython, PyPy, Shedskin
Arrays dynamically sized No Yes
Typing Discipline Static, strong, safe, nominative, manifest Dynamic, strong
code compiled to bytecode Interpretation from the high-level scripting language (Python) to low-level bytecode (pyc)
Influenced Ada 2005, BeanShell, C#, Clojure, D, ECMAScript, Groovy, J#, Javascript, PHP, Python, Scala, Seed7, Vala CoffeeScript, D, F#, Go, Apache Groovy, JavaScript, Julia, Ruby, Swift
Usual filename extensions .java, .class, .jar, .war .py
Object-oriented Yes Yes but you don't have to
Programming-include import import [module] or from [module] import [functions]
Procedural Programming Yes Yes
Functional Programming Yes Yes
OS Cross-platform Cross-platform
Metaprogramming No Yes
Website http://www.oracle.com/technetwork/java/ http://www.python.org
Reflection Yes Yes
Multidimensional arrays supported Yes Yes
Runs on Virtual machine Python interpreter
Speed slower than C++ slower than C++
Developed by Oracle Corporation Python Software Foundation
OOP (object-oriented programming) Yes Yes, but you don't have to
Memory management Automatic Automatic
OOP (Object Oriented Programming) Yes Yes, but you don't have to.

Typing discipline

Java is statically typed, and so it forces a computer programmer to define the type of a variable when he first declare it and will not allow him to change the type later in the program. Python is dynamically typed and a programmer can just use his variables as he wants to without worrying too much about their types.

Code separation

Kasia Mikoluk says that Python is unusual among programming languages in that it uses indentation to separate code into blocks, while Java uses curly braces to define the beginning and end of each function and class definition. The advantage of using indentation is that it forces the programmer to set his program out in a way that is easy to read, and there is no chance of errors resulting from a missing brace.

Code length

Larry Wall says that Java codes are heavyweight and verbose. The Python website says that Python codes are 3-5 times shorter than Java codes.

Ease of use

Python is easier to use than Java because its code is shorter and the programming language is dynamically typed.

References

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