Eukaryotic Cell vs. Prokaryotic Cell

Eukaryotic Cell
Prokaryotic Cell

The distinction between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms. Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound organelles, such as the nucleus, while prokaryotic cells do not. Differences in cellular structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes include the presence of mitochondria and chloroplasts, the cell wall, and the structure of chromosomal DNA.

Prokaryotes were the only form of life on Earth for millions of years until more complicated eukaryotic cells came into being through the process of evolution.

Comparison chart

Eukaryotic Cell

Prokaryotic Cell

Nucleus Present Absent
Number of chromosomes More than one One--but not true chromosome: Plasmids
Cell Type Usually multicellular Usually unicellular (some cyanobacteria may be multicellular)
True Membrane bound Nucleus Present Absent
Example Animals and Plants Bacteria and Archaea
Genetic Recombination Meiosis and fusion of gametes Partial, undirectional transfers DNA
Lysosomes and peroxisomes Present Absent
Microtubules Present Absent or rare
Endoplasmic reticulum Present Absent
Mitochondria Present Absent
Cytoskeleton Present May be absent
DNA wrapping on proteins. Eukaryotes wrap their DNA around proteins called histones. Multiple proteins act together to fold and condense prokaryotic DNA. Folded DNA is then organized into a variety of conformations that are supercoiled and wound around tetramers of the HU protein.
Ribosomes larger smaller
Vesicles Present Present
Golgi apparatus Present Absent
Chloroplasts Present (in plants) Absent; chlorophyll scattered in the cytoplasm
Flagella Microscopic in size; membrane bound; usually arranged as nine doublets surrounding two singlets Submicroscopic in size, composed of only one fiber
Permeability of Nuclear Membrane Selective not present
Plasma membrane with steroid Yes Usually no
Cell wall Only in plant cells and fungi (chemically simpler) Usually chemically complexed
Vacuoles Present Present
Cell size 10-100um 1-10um

Definition of eukaryotes and prokaryotes

Prokaryotes (pro-KAR-ee-ot-es) (from Old Greek pro- before + karyon nut or kernel, referring to the cell nucleus, + suffix -otos, pl. -otes; also spelled "procaryotes") are organisms without a cell nucleus (= karyon), or any other membrane-bound organelles. Most are unicellular, but some prokaryotes are multicellular.

Eukaryotes (IPA: [juːˈkæɹɪɒt]) are organisms whose cells are organized into complex structures by internal membranes and a cytoskeleton. The most characteristic membrane bound structure is the nucleus. This feature gives them their name, (also spelled "eucaryote,") which comes from the Greek ευ, meaning good/true, and κάρυον, meaning nut, referring to the nucleus. Animals, plants, fungi, and protists are eukaryotes.

Differences between eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells

The difference between the structure of prokaryotes and eukaryotes is so great that it is considered to be the most important distinction among groups of organisms.

Structure and contents of a typical Gram positive bacterial cell (a prokaryotic cell)
Structure and contents of a typical Gram positive bacterial cell (a prokaryotic cell)

Image:eukaryote-prokaryote-DNA.png

References

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Comments: Eukaryotic Cell vs Prokaryotic Cell

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Anonymous comments (16)

December 5, 2013, 4:51pm

They don't really have the function of the similarity between the two:(

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4

November 5, 2013, 8:03pm

thank u it helped me

— 195.✗.✗.22
4

March 13, 2014, 2:36am

I'm 15 years old getting prepared for the Biology EOC Test :(

— 108.✗.✗.212
3

October 24, 2013, 2:42pm

this really help me....

— 70.✗.✗.250
2

October 23, 2013, 5:05pm

hi anyone know who the author is and when it was written so I can reference please x

— 82.✗.✗.110
2

May 8, 2013, 12:49pm

Thank you for this website, it helped me so much in my A-level!

— 78.✗.✗.81
2

February 9, 2012, 1:26pm

Two things we learned:
- Many Eukaryotes don't have a cell wall
- Prokaryotes contain a single loop of stable chromosomal DNA stored in the nucleiod.
A question that we still have:
- What are some similarities between the two?

— 170.✗.✗.19
2

October 22, 2013, 8:09am

you have made me a winner...love you guys

— 41.✗.✗.20
1

May 12, 2013, 12:11pm

Actually, most eukaryotic organisms are also unicellular. It's just that multicellularity occurs more often within the domain eukarya.

— 59.✗.✗.224
1

May 7, 2013, 1:59am

Just stumbled across this website and loved it. Thank you for this table! It really helped.

— 210.✗.✗.123
1

February 19, 2013, 12:36am

thank you-this really helped with my homework!! :)

— 202.✗.✗.25
0

February 15, 2013, 4:34am

very good. I learnt a bunch of new things from this. Thanx a lot......

— 61.✗.✗.221
0

December 2, 2012, 3:43am

This was very helpful thank you. S much st

— 98.✗.✗.96
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October 17, 2012, 1:50pm

why do the cells differ

— 209.✗.✗.146
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November 17, 2011, 3:50pm

can you add more similarities?

— 205.✗.✗.119
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November 4, 2011, 6:52am

super helpful, thanks

— 74.✗.✗.59
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