Mitosis and Meiosis

Cells divide and reproduce in two ways: mitosis and meiosis. Mitosis is a process of cell division that results in two genetically identical daughter cells developing from a single parent cell. Meiosis, on the other hand, is the division of a germ cell involving two fissions of the nucleus and giving rise to four gametes, or sex cells, each possessing half the number of chromosomes of the original cell.

Mitosis is used by single-celled organisms to reproduce; it is also used for the organic growth of tissues, fibers, and membranes. Meiosis is found in sexual reproduction of organisms. The male and female sex cells (i.e., egg and sperm) combine to create new, genetically different offspring.

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Definition A type of cellular reproduction in which the number of chromosomes are reduced by half through the separation of homologous chromosomes, producing two haploid cells. A process of asexual reproduction in which the cell divides in two producing a replica, with an equal number of chromosomes in each resulting diploid cell.
Function Genetic diversity through sexual reproduction. Cellular reproduction and general growth and repair of the body.
Type of Reproduction Sexual Asexual
Occurs in Humans, animals, plants, fungi. All organisms.
Genetically Different Identical
Crossing Over Yes, mixing of chromosomes can occur. No, crossing over cannot occur.
Pairing of Homologs Yes No
Number of Divisions 2 1
Number of Daughter Cells produced 4 haploid cells 2 diploid cells
Chromosome Number Reduced by half. Remains the same.
Steps (Meiosis 1) Prophase I, Metaphase I, Anaphase I, Telophase I; (Meiosis 2) Prophase II, Metaphase II, Anaphase II and Telophase II. Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase.
Karyokinesis Occurs in Interphase I. Occurs in Interphase.
Cytokinesis Occurs in Telophase I and in Telophase II. Occurs in Telophase.
Centromeres Split The centromeres do not separate during anaphase I, but during anaphase II. The centromeres split during anaphase.
Creates Sex cells only: female egg cells or male sperm cells. Makes everything other than sex cells.
Discovered by Oscar Hertwig Walther Flemming

Contents: Mitosis and Meiosis

Differences in Purpose

Though both types of cell division are found in many animals, plants, and fungi, mitosis is more common than meiosis and has a wider variety of functions. Not only is mitosis responsible for asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms, but it is also what enables cellular growth and repair in multicellular organisms, such as humans. In mitosis, a cell makes an exact clone of itself. This process is what is behind the growth of children into adults, the healing of cuts and bruises, and even the regrowth of skin, limbs, and appendages in animals like geckos and lizards.

Meiosis is a more specific type of cell division (of germ cells, in particular) that results in gametes, either eggs or sperm, that contain half of the chromosomes found in a parent cell. Unlike mitosis with its many functions, meiosis has a narrow but significant purpose: assisting sexual reproduction. It is the process that enables children to be related but still different from their two parents.

Meiosis and Genetic Diversity

Sexual reproduction uses the process of meiosis to increase genetic diversity. Offspring created through asexual reproduction (mitosis) are genetically identical to their parent, but the germ cells created during meiosis are different from their parent cells. Some mutations frequently occur during meiosis. Further, germ cells have only one set of chromosomes, so two germ cells are required to make a complete set of genetic material for the offspring. The offspring is therefore able to inherit genes from both parents and both sets of grandparents.

Genetic diversity makes a population more resilient and adaptable to the environment, which increases chances of survival and evolution for the long term.

Mitosis as a form of reproduction for single-cell organisms originated with life itself, around 3.8 billion years ago. Meiosis is thought to have appeared around 1.4 billion years ago.

Mitosis and Meiosis Stages

Cells spend about 90% of their existence in a stage known as interphase. Because cells function more efficiently and reliably when small, most cells carry out regular metabolic tasks, divide, or die, rather than simply grow larger in the interphase. Cells "prepare" for division by replicating DNA and duplicating protein-based centrioles. When cell division begins, the cells enter into either mitotic or meiotic phases.

In mitosis, the end product is two cells: the original parent cell and a new, genetically identical daughter cell. Meiosis is more complex and goes through additional phases to create four genetically different haploid cells which then have the potential to combine and form a new, genetically diverse diploid offspring.

Stages of Mitosis

There are four mitotic phases: prophase, metaphase, anaphase, and telophase. Plant cells have an additional phase, preprophase, that occurs before prophase.

The process of mitosis
The process of mitosis

Stages of Meiosis

There are two primary meiosis stages in which cell division occurs: meiosis 1 and meiosis 2. Both primary stages have four stages of their own. Meiosis 1 has prophase 1, metaphase 1, anaphase 1, and telophase 1, while meiosis 2 has prophase 2, metaphase 2, anaphase 2, and telophase 2. Cytokinesis plays a role in meiosis, too; however, as in mitosis, it is a separate process from meiosis itself, and cytokinesis shows up at a different point in the division.

Meiosis 1 vs Meiosis 2

In meiosis 1, a germ cell divides into two diploid cells (halving the number of chromosomes in the process), and the main focus is on the exchange of similar genetic material (e.g., a hair gene; see also genotype vs phenotype). In meiosis 2, which is quite similar to mitosis, the two diploid cells further divide into four haploid cells.

An overview of the process and phases of meiosis
An overview of the process and phases of meiosis

Stages of Meiosis 1

Stages of Meiosis 2

Cellular Biology

Both mitosis and meiosis are studied by scientists generally by using a microscope to identify and classify chromosomal patterns and relationships within a cell’s structure. An understanding of the way cells synthesize chromosomes for reproduction can be applied in biomechanics and nanotechnology. Transplantation of genes and chromosomes through injection and implantation is used to experiment with bioengineering and cloning. A primary hope is that understanding the process by which cells replicate will lead to improved medical outcomes and perhaps even cures.


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Comments: Meiosis vs Mitosis

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Anonymous comments (40)

April 12, 2012, 4:30pm

Three points to make, listed in order of increasing importance:

Listing humans and animals separately might serve to emphasise that meiosis _does_ occur in human, but it also serves to draw a distinction between humans and animals that doesn't exist. A better phrasing would have been "animals (including humans), plants and fungi".

Mitosis can produce two _haploid_ daughter cells, if it is a haploid cell undergoing mitosis. There is no reason for it to be only diploid cells that undergo mitosis, and it is in fact not the case. The key point is that the chromosome number does not change.

Mitosis _DOES NOT_ occur in all organisms. Division of prokaryotic cells is not mitotic - there are no mitotic spindles and no chromosome condensation is involved. The process of prokaryotic cell division is entirely different, and is called binary fission. In fact, mitosis occurs in exactly the same organisms as meiosis.

— 62.✗.✗.72

February 20, 2014, 8:55am

Wow how great it was to learn how meiosis and mitosos functions

— 41.✗.✗.54

June 11, 2013, 7:34am

wow this is really helpful thanks!

— 211.✗.✗.219

February 26, 2014, 10:13pm

i literally copied all the stuff from the chart and finished my homework. Shorty, you so best.

— 74.✗.✗.124

December 6, 2013, 4:56pm


— 207.✗.✗.126

October 31, 2013, 6:42pm

Helped me study! thanks

— 162.✗.✗.236

October 25, 2013, 7:33pm

cool... helps a bit

— 163.✗.✗.231

October 19, 2013, 9:48pm

Thank you so much! You have really helped me understand the difference between the two :)

— 72.✗.✗.203

May 3, 2012, 8:32pm

Thank you for the information. It was very useful. YOLO

— 75.✗.✗.3

February 27, 2012, 11:54pm

This was very helpful so I could study for my test!! :)

— 71.✗.✗.174

July 14, 2011, 3:02pm

i am not a bio student but this topic is very interesting.Now with clear concept of both i can even help some bio students

— 180.✗.✗.47

December 9, 2013, 11:41pm

I think this is the smart study...............thank you very much.............................I like it

— 91.✗.✗.92

April 24, 2013, 9:33pm

Quite useful! the chart helped me a lot in biology!

— 186.✗.✗.161

June 5, 2014, 1:15am

Very informative, thanks a lot. I am now ready to take my exam.. yohoo... :)

— 49.✗.✗.193

June 3, 2014, 8:26am

really it's a good information

— 158.✗.✗.54

May 7, 2014, 12:35pm

this helped me with a
project very useful

— 64.✗.✗.190

May 7, 2014, 7:43am

Really usefull

— 106.✗.✗.76

January 14, 2014, 11:24pm

Thx I hope this will help me to pass that exam :(

— 74.✗.✗.111

January 9, 2014, 9:11am

Tanks a lot it was useful.

— 197.✗.✗.32

December 23, 2013, 11:31pm

I understand much now ..anyway i like it.

— 82.✗.✗.85

January 28, 2013, 4:53pm

im confused w/ purpose of process between mitosis & meiosis . . . (>.<)

— 166.✗.✗.101

August 16, 2012, 5:06am

Thankyou. :*

— 122.✗.✗.140

May 22, 2012, 2:12pm

this is really helpfull

— 169.✗.✗.146

April 27, 2012, 4:18pm

this stuff was nicely used. Thanks buddy

— 208.✗.✗.35

December 11, 2011, 9:43am

you must add understandable charts that differentiate mitosis and meiosis

— 119.✗.✗.194

January 10, 2010, 6:28pm

Added definitions as according to:
Campbell, Neil A., and Jane B. Reece. Biology with MasteringBiology(TM) (8th Edition). San Francisco: Benjamin Cummings, 2007. Print.

— 71.✗.✗.219

August 24, 2009, 2:17am

Meiosis and Mitosis have one similarity and some differences. One similarity is step. They proceded by Interphase. One difference is type of reproduction. Meiosis is sexual. Mitosis is asexual. Another difference is number of divisions. Meiosis has 2 nuclear and cytoplasmic divisions. Mitosis has 1 division of the nucleus in Cytokinesis.

— 58.✗.✗.109

June 12, 2014, 5:21pm

Wow this really helped a lot because i understanded it.thanks

— 41.✗.✗.74

June 2, 2014, 1:03pm

Very useful

— 152.✗.✗.62

May 19, 2014, 8:42pm

Tnx alot

— 82.✗.✗.218

April 30, 2014, 3:34am

Thanks, but may you write in table form

— 82.✗.✗.138

April 25, 2014, 8:55pm

i am very interest with this social network! the home of learnin and more studies

— 37.✗.✗.115

April 16, 2014, 9:48am

this is nice wow finally i now know more about mitosis and meiosis

— 82.✗.✗.175

March 31, 2014, 5:33pm

mitosis is the process of cell divistion found in somatic cells, a diploid parent divides to produce two of it own kinds, having the same quantity and quality materials as the parent.

— 141.✗.✗.90

March 22, 2014, 4:18pm

Just got stuff for my term paper,
Thank you.

— 82.✗.✗.73

December 8, 2013, 12:27am

Really hlped

— 208.✗.✗.224

September 6, 2013, 3:01am

wow this is useful@_@

— 153.✗.✗.158

January 28, 2013, 11:20pm

This will help enhance my study on forest genetics and tree breeding. Thnx alot

— 37.✗.✗.47

November 12, 2011, 6:49am

well explained i think i will carry it across in class and show a good demonstration

— 2.✗.✗.118

February 19, 2014, 7:45am

chromosome replication vs chromosome reshefling

— 82.✗.✗.251


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