Routers and switches are both computer networking devices. They allow one or more computers to be connected to other computers, networked devices, or to other networks.
However, the functions of a hub, switch and router are quite different, even if at times they are integrated into a single device. Routers connect two or more logical subnets, which do not necessarily map one-to-one to the physical interfaces of the router. The term layer 3 switch often is used interchangeably with router, but switch is really a general term without a rigorous technical definition. In marketing usage, it is generally optimized for Ethernet LAN interfaces and may not have other physical interface types.
Network Layer (Layer 3 devices)
Data Link Layer. Network switches operate at Layer 2 of the OSI model.
Switch is multi port Bridge. 24/48 ports
Active Device (With Software) & Networking device
Data Transmission form
Frame (L2 Switch) Frame & Packet (L3 switch)
Directs data in a network. Passes data between home computers, and between computers and the modem.
Allow to connect multiple device and port can be manage, Vlan can create security also can apply
Used in (LAN, MAN, WAN)
At Initial Level Broadcast then Uni-cast & Multicast
First broadcast; then unicast & multicast as needed.
Store IP address in Routing table and maintain address at its own.
Switches use content accessible memory CAM table which is typically accessed by ASIC (Application Specific integrated chips).
In Router, every port has its own Broadcast domain.
Switch has one broadcast domain [unless VLAN implemented]
A router is a networking device that connects a local network to other local networks. At the Distribution Layer of the network, routers direct traffic and perform other functions critical to efficient network operation.
A network switch is a computer networking device that is used to connect many devices together on a computer network. A switch is considered more advanced than a hub because a switch will on send msg to device that needs or request it
Bandwidth sharing is Dynamic (Enables either static or dynamic bandwidth sharing for modular cable interfaces. The default percent-value is 0. The percent-value range is 1-96.)
There is no sharing port can be 10, 100, 1000 and 10000 Mbps individual
1-10 Mbps(Wireless) 100 Mbps (Wired)
Take faster Routing Decision
Take more time for complicated routing Decision
NAT (Network Address Translation)
Can Perform NAT
Switches can Not perform NAT
In a different network environment (MAN/ WAN) Router is faster than L3 Switch.
In a LAN environment L3 switch is faster than Router (built in switchning hardware)
Firewall VPN Dynamic hadling of Bandwidth
Priority rt range On/Off setting of port VLAN Port mirroring
Linksys WRT54GL Juniper MX & EX series Cisco 3900,2900,1900
Alcatel's OmniSwitch 9000; Cisco Catalyst switch 4500 and 6500(10 Gbps),
Connecting two or more networks
Connecting two or more nodes in the same network or different network
A router is a more sophisticated device than a switch. Traditional routers are designed to join multiple area networks (LANs and WANs). Routers serve as intermediate destinations for network traffic. They receive TCP/IP packets, look inside each packet to identify the source and target IP addresses, then forward these packets as needed to ensure the data reaches its final destination. Additionally, routers can be used to increase a small business or home network's security while browsing the internet.
A network switch is a small hardware device that joins multiple computers together within one local area network (LAN). Switches are incapable of joining multiple networks or sharing an Internet connection. A home network with a switch must designate one computer as the gateway to the Internet, and that device must possess two network adapters for sharing, one for the home LAN and one for the Internet WAN. With a router, all home computers connect to the router equally, and it performs the equivalent gateway functions.
Below is a video that compares hubs, switches, and routers.